# Engineering machine 1 Handwritten notes

Dear students I am going to provide Engineering machine Handwritten notes which will help you to get more information , knowledge and marks

#### Module 1: Magnetic fields and magnetic circuits (6 Hours)

Review of magnetic circuits - MMF, flux, reluctance, inductance; review of Ampere Law and Biot Savart Law; Visualization of magnetic fields produced by a bar magnet and a current carrying coil - through air and through a combination of iron and air; influence of highly permeable materials on the magnetic flux lines.#### Module 2: Electromagnetic force and torque (9 Hours)

B-H curve of magnetic materials; flux-linkage vs current characteristic of magnetic circuits; linear and nonlinear magnetic circuits; energy stored in the magnetic circuit; force as a partial derivative of stored energy with respect to position of a moving element; torque as a partial derivative of stored energy with respect to angular position of a rotating element. Examples - galvanometer coil, relay contact, lifting magnet, rotating element with eccentricity or saliency#### Module 3: DC machines (8 Hours)

Basic construction of a DC machine, magnetic structure - stator yoke, stator poles, polefaces or shoes, air gap and armature core, visualization of magnetic field produced by the field winding excitation with armature winding open, air gap flux density distribution, flux per pole, induced EMF in an armature coil. Armature winding and commutation - Elementary armature coil and commutator, lap and wave windings, construction of commutator, linear commutation Derivation of back EMF equation, armature MMF wave, derivation of torque equation, armature reaction, air gap flux density distribution with armature reaction.#### Module 4: DC machine - motoring and generation (7 Hours)

Armature circuit equation for motoring and generation, Types of field excitations - separately excited, shunt and series. Open circuit characteristic of separately excited DC generator, back EMF with armature reaction, voltage build-up in a shunt generator, critical field resistance and critical speed. V-I characteristics and torque-speed characteristics of separately excited, shunt and series motors. Speed control through armature voltage. Losses, load testing and back-to-back testing of DC machines#### Module 5: Transformers (12 Hours)

Principle, construction and operation of single-phase transformers, equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, voltage regulation, losses and efficiency Testing - open circuit and short circuit tests, polarity test, back-to-back test, separation of hysteresis and eddy current losses Three-phase transformer - construction, types of connection and their comparative features, Parallel operation of single-phase and three-phase transformers, Autotransformers - construction, principle, applications and comparison with two winding transformer, Magnetizing current, effect of nonlinear B-H curve of magnetic core material, harmonics in magnetization current, Phase conversion - Scott connection, three-phase to six-phase conversion, Tap-changing transformers - No-load and on-load tap-changing of transformers, Three-winding transformers. Cooling of transformers.#### Text /References

1. A. E. Fitzgerald and C. Kingsley, Electric Machinery”, New York, McGraw Hill Education, 2013.2. A. E. Clayton and N. N. Hancock, “Performance and design of DC machines”, CBS Publishers, 2004.

3. M. G. Say , “Performance and design of AC machines”, CBS Publishers, 2002.

4. P. S. Bimbhra, “Electrical Machinery”, Khanna Publishers, 2011.

5. I. J. Nagrath and D. P. Kothari, “Electric Machines”, McGraw Hill Education, 2010.

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